Impact of Economic Growth, Urbanization and Transportation on Environmental Degradation on Selected Developing Countries


  • Rashid Ahmad Assistant Professor, School of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan
  • Memoona Shahzadi M.Phil Scholar, School of Economics Bahaudin Zakariya University Multan. Pakistan



Environmental Degradation, Carbon Dioxide, Granger Causality, Urbanization


This study has been conducted to explore the effect of economic growth, urbanization and transportation on environmental degradation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used as the proxy variable of environmental degradation. The data of 20 developing countries has been collected from 2003 to 2020. In this study Panel Auto distributed Lag model (ARDL) and Granger Causality test is used for the estimation. The findings revealed that there was positive effect of Air Transport Income, urbanization, Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Foreign Direct Investment on carbon dioxide emission. Gross Domestic Product was found to be negatively association with CO2 emission. Some policy recommendation has been also given in order to improve the environmental quality.


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How to Cite

Ahmad, R. ., & Shahzadi, M. . (2023). Impact of Economic Growth, Urbanization and Transportation on Environmental Degradation on Selected Developing Countries. Review of Education, Administration & Law, 6(2), 371-379.