Construction and Validation of the Teachers' Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ): A Detailed Exploration


  • Nyla Ramzan PhD Scholar, Khawaja Fareed UEIT, Rahimyar Khan
  • Azmat Farooq Ahmad Khurram Assistant Professor, Khawaja Fareed UEIT, Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan



Teachers' Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation


The teachers' motivation is crucial to the institutional value and accomplishment of goals; it greatly influences the success of institutions, particularly in educational institutions. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess teachers' motivation and named it as Teachers' Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ). The questionnaire contained two motivation dimensions provided by Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation (i.e., Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation). The preliminary draft of the questionnaire was created after a focus group discussion on the forty-four (44) item, five (5) point Likert Scale. After ensuring content and face validity by having the items reviewed by experts and removing any items with CVR scores of less than 0.42, the questionnaire's items were whittled down to just thirty (30). Two hundred twenty-six teachers working for the school education department participated in a pilot study of the revised questionnaire. The data were processed using PLS Smart version 4, which determined the questionnaire's validity, reliability, and model fit. After removing the unsuitable items, the questionnaire was reduced to eighteen (18) items. The AVE values for extrinsic motivation items were 0.575 > 0.5, while for intrinsic motivation items were 0.633> 0.5. The Fornell-Lacker criterion value (0.828) was greater than the correlations with other latent components, 0.778 and 0.828, respectively. The Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio (HTMT) was 0.895 0.9, which is considered good. Cronbach alpha values for extrinsic motivation were 0.917 > 0.7, while for intrinsic motivation were 0.916 > 0.7. Similarly, the composite reliability (CR) values for extrinsic motivation were 0.931 > 0.7 and 0.932 > 0.7, respectively. So, the Teachers' Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ) was internally consistent, valid, and reliable. The overall study's findings approved using TMQ to investigate teachers' motivation.




How to Cite

Ramzan, N., & Khurram, A. F. A. . (2023). Construction and Validation of the Teachers’ Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ): A Detailed Exploration. Review of Education, Administration & Law, 6(2), 381-394.