Education, Human Capital, and Endogenous Growth Nexus: Time Series Evidence from Pakistan


  • Hina Ali Associate Professor, Department of Economics, The Women University Multan- Pakistan
  • Fatima Farooq Associate Professor, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ramzan Sheikh Associate Professor, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Ashfa Perveeen MPhil Scholar, Department of Economics, The Women University Multan, Pakistan



Education, Human Capital, Endogenous Growth, ADF Test, NARDL, Pakistan


The concept of endogenous growth states that economic growth is caused by variables within the economy rather than external ones. This study's major goal is to demonstrate the link between education, human capital, and endogenous growth in Pakistan. For the period 1990–2021, time series data is used. The stationary is confirmed using the augmented dickey fuller (ADF) method. In this research, the non linear autoregressive distributed lag model (NARDL) technique is employed for the empirical analysis. Gross domestic product (GDP), education enrolment, human capital, inflation, trade, and gross fixed capital formation are the factors examined in this study. In the current research, gross domestic product, education enrollment, and human capital are dependent variables, while inflation, trade, gross fixed capital formation and education enrollment are independent variables. Inflation shows an inverse relationship with the gross domestic product, while trade and education enrollment show a positive relationship with the gross domestic product. Gross fixed capital formation shows an inverse relationship with human capital, while education enrollment and inflation also show a negative relationship with human capital. Gross fixed capital formation and trade show a positive impact on education enrollment, while inflation shows a negative impact on education enrollment. It is recommended that the government should decrease inflation to increase gross domestic product (GDP). This study suggests that education enrollment (EDUENROLL), trade (TRADE), and gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) also increase.


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How to Cite

Ali, H., Farooq, F. ., Sheikh, M. R. ., & Perveeen, A. . (2022). Education, Human Capital, and Endogenous Growth Nexus: Time Series Evidence from Pakistan. Review of Education, Administration & Law, 5(2), 109-121.