Cognitive Appraisal of Organizational Change and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Goal Congruence

Authors

  • Muhammad Asif Munir PhD Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Nosheen Sarwat Assistant Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47067/real.v5i2.221

Keywords:

Organizational Change, Cognitive Appraisal, Goal Congruence, Psychological Wellbeing

Abstract

Most organizational change studies focus on the individual’s positive or negative reactions towards organizational change, yet there is a lack of understanding in existing literature as to the specific reasons behind individual’s positive or negative response. The purpose of the current study is to empirically examine the impact of individual cognitive appraisal of organizational change on their psychological wellbeing with goal congruence as a mediator between the relationship. The data consisted of a sample (N=191) and were collected from employees who worked for a large distribution firm of multinational products. Our findings suggest that the individuals who appraised their organizational change as a challenge also depicted positive impacts on their psychological wellbeing as mediated by goal congruence. On the other hand, where the individuals appraised organizational change as a hindrance/threat, it negatively impacted their psychological wellbeing. In the end future research directions and implications of the study have been discussed.

References

Agboola, A. A., & Salawu, R. O. (2011). Managing deviant behavior and resistance to change. International Journal of business and management, 6(1), 235.

Armenakis, A. A., & Bedeian, A. G. (1999). Organizational change: A review of theory and research in the 1990s. Journal of management, 25(3), 293-315.

Ashkanasy, N. M., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Current emotion research in organizational behavior. Emotion review, 3(2), 214-224.

Austin, M. S., & Harkins, D. A. (2008). Assessing change: can organizational learning “work” for schools?. The Learning Organization.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of occupational health psychology, 10(2), 170.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173.

Bordia, P., Restubog, S. L. D., Jimmieson, N. L., & Irmer, B. E. (2011). Haunted by the past: Effects of poor change management history on employee attitudes and turnover. Group & Organization Management, 36(2), 191-222.

Bovey, W. H., & Hede, A. (2001). Resistance to organizational change: the role of cognitive and affective processes. Leadership & Organization development journal.

Cascio, W. F. (1995). Whither industrial and organizational psychology in a changing world of work?. American psychologist, 50(11), 928.

Cavanaugh, M. A., Boswell, W. R., Roehling, M. V., & Boudreau, J. W. (2000). An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among US managers. Journal of applied psychology, 85(1), 65.

Chen, J., & Nadkarni, S. (2017). It’s about time! CEOs’ temporal dispositions, temporal leadership, and corporate entrepreneurship. Administrative Science Quarterly, 62(1), 31-66.

Choi, M. (2011). Employees' attitudes toward organizational change: A literature review. Human resource management, 50(4), 479-500.

Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2014). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology press.

De Clercq, D., Bouckenooghe, D., Raja, U., & Matsyborska, G. (2014). Servant leadership and work engagement: The contingency effects of leader–follower social capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(2), 183-212.

De Fátima Nery, V., Franco, K. S., & Neiva, E. R. (2020). Attributes of the organizational change and its influence on attitudes toward organizational change and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 56(2), 216-236.

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied psychology, 86(3), 499.

Doest, L. T., Maes, S., Gebhardt, W. A., & Koelewijn, H. (2006). Personal goal facilitation through work: Implications for employee satisfaction and well?being. Applied Psychology, 55(2), 192-219.

Edwards, J. R., & Cable, D. M. (2009). The value of value congruence. Journal of applied psychology, 94(3), 654.

Elfenbein, H. A., & O'Reilly III, C. A. (2007). Fitting in: The effects of relational demography and person-culture fit on group process and performance. Group & Organization Management, 32(1), 109-142.

Ellsworth, P. C. (2013). Appraisal theory: Old and new questions. Emotion Review, 5(2), 125-131.

Emil, S., & Cress, C. (2014). Faculty perspectives on programme curricular assessment: individual and institutional characteristics that influence participation engagement. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39(5), 531-552.

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of personality and social psychology, 48(1), 150.

Fugate, M., Prussia, G. E., & Kinicki, A. J. (2012). Managing employee withdrawal during organizational change: The role of threat appraisal. Journal of Management, 38(3), 890-914.

Grebner, S., Elfering, A., & Semmer, N. K. (2010). The success resource model of job stress. In New developments in theoretical and conceptual approaches to job stress. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Harris, C., Daniels, K., & Briner, R. B. (2003). A daily diary study of goals and affective well?being at work. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 76(3), 401-410.

Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications.

Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2010). Quantifying and testing indirect effects in simple mediation models when the constituent paths are nonlinear. Multivariate behavioral research, 45(4), 627-660.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: a new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American psychologist, 44(3), 513.

Hobfoll, S. E., Freedy, J., Lane, C., & Geller, P. (1990). Conservation of social resources: Social support resource theory. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7(4), 465-478.

Klug, H. J., & Maier, G. W. (2015). Linking goal progress and subjective well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(1), 37-65.

Kristof?Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences OF INDIVIDUALS'FIT at work: A meta?analysis OF person–job, person–organization, person–group, and person–supervisor fit. Personnel psychology, 58(2), 281-342.

Kronenwett, M., & Rigotti, T. (2019). When do you face a challenge? How unnecessary tasks block the challenging potential of time pressure and emotional demands. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(5), 512.

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Cognition and motivation in emotion. American psychologist, 46(4), 352.

Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: a history of changing outlooks.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer publishing company.

LePine, M. A., Zhang, Y., Crawford, E. R., & Rich, B. L. (2016). Turning their pain to gain: Charismatic leader influence on follower stress appraisal and job performance. Academy of management journal, 59(3), 1036-1059.

LePine, M. A., Zhang, Y., Crawford, E. R., & Rich, B. L. (2016). Turning their pain to gain: Charismatic leader influence on follower stress appraisal and job performance. Academy of management journal, 59(3), 1036-1059.

Liu, Y., & Perrewe, P. L. (2005). Another look at the role of emotion in the organizational change: A process model. Human Resource Management Review, 15(4), 263-280.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting & task performance. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2012). Common method bias in marketing: Causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies. Journal of retailing, 88(4), 542-555.

MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention science, 1(4), 173-181.

MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate behavioral research, 39(1), 99-128.

Madrid, H. P., Patterson, M. G., Birdi, K. S., Leiva, P. I., & Kausel, E. E. (2014). The role of weekly high?activated positive mood, context, and personality in innovative work behavior: A multilevel and interactional model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(2), 234-256.

Mariana, P., & Violeta, S. (2011). Opportunity to reduce resistance to change in a process of organizational change. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 20(2), 698-702.

Oreg, S. (2018). Resistance to change and performance: Toward a more even-handed view of dispositional resistance. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 54(1), 88-107.

Oreg, S., Bartunek, J. M., Lee, G., & Do, B. (2018). An affect-based model of recipients’ responses to organizational change events. Academy of Management Review, 43(1), 65-86.

Oreg, S., Vakola, M., & Armenakis, A. (2011). Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change: A 60-year review of quantitative studies. The Journal of applied behavioral science, 47(4), 461-524.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior research methods, 40(3), 879-891.

Rosa, H. (2003). Social acceleration: ethical and political consequences of a desynchronized high–speed society. Constellations, 10(1), 3-33.

Rosa, H. (2013). Social acceleration. In Social Acceleration. Columbia University Press.

Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Appraisal theory. Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research, 3-19.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 54-67.

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current directions in psychological science, 4(4), 99-104.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. Bridging occupational, organizational and public health, 43-68.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness studies, 3(1), 71-92.

Schaufeli, W., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. CRC press.

Scherer, K. R. (1988). Criteria for emotion-antecedent appraisal: A review. Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation, 89-126.

Searle, B. J., & Auton, J. C. (2015). The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 28(2), 121-143.

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: the self-concordance model. Journal of personality and social psychology, 76(3), 482.

Smith, C. A., & Kirby, L. D. (2011). The role of appraisal and emotion in coping and adaptation. The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health, 195-208.

Smollan, R. K. (2015). Causes of stress before, during and after organizational change: a qualitative study. Journal of Organizational Change Management.

Speisman, J. C., Lazarus, R. S., Davison, L., & Mordkoff, A. M. (1964). Experimental analysis of a film used as a threatening stimulus. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28(1), 23.

Supeli, A., & Creed, P. A. (2014). The incremental validity of perceived goal congruence: The assessment of person–organizational fit. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(1), 28-42.

Turgut, S., Michel, A., & Sonntag, K. (2017). Coping with daily hindrance and challenge stressors in the workplace: Coping style effects on state negative affect. Zeitschrift für Arbeits-und Organisationspsychologie A&O, 61(3), 123-136.

Turnipseed, D. L. (1994). An analysis of the influence of work environment variables and moderators on the burnout syndrome. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(9), 782-800.

Vakola, M. (2016). The reasons behind change recipients’ behavioral reactions: a longitudinal investigation. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., De Witte, H., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). Not all job demands are equal: Differentiating job hindrances and job challenges in the Job Demands–Resources model. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 19(6), 735-759.

Van Dick, R., Ciampa, V., & Liang, S. (2018). Shared identity in organizational stress and change. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, 20-25.

Wagner, S. L., & Rush, M. C. (2000). Altruistic organizational citizenship behavior: Context, disposition, and age. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140(3), 379-391.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Dollard, M. F., Demerouti, E., Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Schreurs, P. J. (2007). When do job demands particularly predict burnout? The moderating role of job resources. Journal of managerial psychology.

Yih, J., Uusberg, A., Qian, W., & Gross, J. J. (2019). Author Reply: An appraisal perspective on neutral affective states. Emotion Review, 12(1).

Yih, J., Uusberg, A., Taxer, J. L., & Gross, J. J. (2019). Better together: a unified perspective on appraisal and emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion, 33(1), 41-47.

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Munir, M. A. ., & Sarwat, N. . (2022). Cognitive Appraisal of Organizational Change and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Goal Congruence. Review of Education, Administration & Law, 5(2), 85-97. https://doi.org/10.47067/real.v5i2.221