Pakistan’s Exports and Global Economy: Export Competitiveness and Efficiency of Toys and Games


  • Muhammad Shahid Maqbool Lecturer, Department of Economics, Government Graduate College Gojra, Pakistan
  • Furrukh Bashir Assistant Professor, School of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan
  • Hafeez ur Rehman Professor/ Chairman, Department of Economics, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rashid Ahmad Assistant Professor, School of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan



Exports, Global Economy, Competitiveness and Efficiency


The aim of this study is to examine the export performance and competitiveness of Pakistan's toy exports by using different indices of revealed comparative advantage. The data were looked at from the International Trade Centre (ITC) for Pakistan’s toys exports during 2004-2020. The results of this study show that Pakistan enjoyed a comparative advantage in exporting toys to the world market during 2004-2020, because the RCA index is greater than 1. The positive values of RSCA and LnRCA indicate that Pakistan had a CA in the concerned sector during 2004-2020. The study also observed that Pakistan had a competitive advantage by employing Vollrath index (RCA#). In addition, the revealed competitiveness index (RC) indicates that Pakistan experienced competitiveness in the toy export sector. The RMA index shows that Pakistan also enjoyed a comparative advantage in the imports of toys during 2004-2020. This means that Pakistan also imports these products from other economies of the world. The index of RTA describes that Pakistan had a net comparative advantage in this sector during analysis. TBI illustrates that Pakistan is the net-exporter in the toys and games sector in the global economy. Pakistan's toy manufacturers need to find new innovative and technologically advanced methods to stimulate domestic toy production and exports.


Abbas, S., & Mohammad, S. D. (2016). Pakistan's international competitiveness over Asia and Europe. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 10(2), 359-367.

Abbas, S., & Waheed, A. (2017). Trade competitiveness of Pakistan: evidence from the revealed comparative advantage approach. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal.

Akhtar, W., Akmal, N., Shah, H., Niazi, M. A., & Tahir, A. (2013). Export competitiveness of Pakistani horticultural products. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(2).

Akhtar, W., Sharif, M., & Shah, H. (2009). Competitiveness of Pakistani fruits in the world market. The Lahore Journal of Economics, 14(2), 125.

Amina Mustafa (2020).

Balassa, B., & Noland, M. (1989). Revealed Comparative Advantage in Japan and the United States. Journal of International Economic Integration, 8-22.

Balassa, B. (1965). Trade liberalization and “revealed” comparative advantage. The Manchester School, 33(2), 99–123.

Costinot, A., Donaldson, D., & Komunjer, I. (2012). What goods do countries trade? A quantitative exploration of Ricardo's ideas. The Review of economic studies, 79(2), 581-608.

Erkan, B. (2014). Comparative Analysis of the Competitiveness in the Export of Science-Based Goods Regarding Turkey and the EU+ 13 Countries. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(8).

Erkan, B., & Erdo?an, N. (2018). The Power of Competitiveness of the Toy Sector in Turkey and the Neccesity of Specialized Toy Organized Inustrial Zones. O. Kara (Dü.) içinde. Global and Regional Studies in terms of Economical and Social Issues, 10-30.

Faustino, H. C. (2008). Intra-Industry Trade and Revealed Comparative Advantage: An Inverted-U Relationship. SOCIUS Working Paper. No:03. 7. 1-13.

Gnidchenko, A., & Salnikov, V. (2015). Net comparative advantage index: Overcoming the drawbacks of the existing indices. Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP, 119.

Gul, A., Tanoli, A. K., Ahmed, T., & Ahmed, M. (2021). Contamination by Hazardous Elements in Low–Priced Children’s Plastic Toys Bought on the local Markets of Karachi, Pakistan.

Gupta, S. D. (2015). Comparative advantage and competitive advantage: an economics perspective and a synthesis. Athens Journal of Business and Economics, 1(1), 9-22.

Hyun, J. T., & Hong, J. Y. (2011). Comparison of Comparative Advantage of Korea and China by Technology Level. Journal of International Logistics and Trade, 9(2), 119-148.

Ignjatijevi?, S., Matijaševi?, J., & Milojevi?, I. (2014). Revealed comparative advantages and competitiveness of the processed food sector for the Danube countries. Custos e@ gronégocio, 10, 256-281.

Ignjatijevi?, S., Matijaševi?, J., & Milojevi?, I. (2014). Revealed comparative advantages and competitiveness of the processed food sector for the Danube countries. Custos E Agronegocio on line, 10(3), 256-281.

Irshad, M. S., & Xin, Q. (2017). Determinants of exports competitiveness: An empirical analysis through revealed comparative advantage of external sector of Pakistan. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 6(3), 623-633.

Koopman, R., Wang, Z., & Wei, S. J. (2014). Tracing value-added and double counting in gross exports. American Economic Review, 104(2), 459-94.

Lafay, G. (1992). The measurement of revealed comparative advantages, in M.G. Dagenais and P.A. Muet (eds.), International Trade Modeling, Chapman & Hill, London..

Liesner, H. H. (1958). The European common market and British industry. The Economic Journal, 68(270), 302-316.

Makochekanwa, A. (2011). Botswana's revealed comparative advantage. Online at MPRA Paper No. 34564, posted 07 Nov 2011 10:33 UTC.

Maqbool, M. S. Rehman, M. A. U., & Ditta, A. (2020). Comparative Advantage and The Product Mapping of Exporting Sector of Minerals in Pakistan. AJSS, 4(3), 700-710.

Maqbool, M. S., Bashir, F., ur Rehman, H., & Ahmad, R. (2021). Revealed Comparative Advantages and Exports Competitiveness of ASEAN-5 Countries in the Global Market. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 7(2), 267-276.

Maqbool, M. S., ur Rehman, H., Bashir, F., & Ahmad, R. (2019). Investigating Pakistan’s revealed comparative advantage and competitiveness in cotton sector. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 5(1), 125-134.

Maqbool, S., & Anwar, S. (2018). Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage of Pakistan in Leather and Leather Products Trade: Analysis and Trends. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 7(1), pp-244.

Maqbool, S., Atiq-ur-Rehman, Khushbakht, M., & Bashir, F. (2021). An Empirical Analysis of Export Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage of Pakistan’s Fruit Products. AJSS, 5(2), 166-177.

Oduro, A. D., & Offei, E. L. (2014). Investigating Ghana’s revealed comparative advantage in agro-processed products. Modern Economy, 2014.

Prasad, R. N. (2004). Fiji's export competitiveness: A comparison with selected small

island developing states. Economics Department, Reserve Bank of Fiji.

Ricardo, D. (1817). On The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation.

London. 1817. [Online] Available (November 24.


Rivlin, P. (2000). Trade potential in the Middle East: some optimistic findings. Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA), 4(1), 56-66.

Sachithra, K. M. V., Sajeevi, G. A. C., Withanawasam, M. P. K., & Jayathilake, W. M. S. A. (2012). Comparative advantage in international trade: a study based on leading exports in Sri Lanka.

Sachithra, K. M. V., Sajeevi, G. A. C., Withanawasm, M. P. K., & Jayathilake, W. M. S. A. (2014). Comparative Advantage in Interntional Trade: A Study Based on Leading Exports in Sri Lanka. Kelaniya Journal of Management, 1(2).

Siddiqui, S., & Farooque, A. Study of Indo-China Trade with special reference to (Chinese Toys in Indian Market). [VOLUME 6 I ISSUE 1 JAN. – MARCH 2019] e ISSN 2348 –1269. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews.

Smith, A (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations; Methuen & Co.: London, UK, 1776

Stevans, L. K., Neelankavil, J. P., Mendoza, R., & Shankar, S. (2012). The economic competitiveness of countries: a principal factors approach. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(12), 76.

Sunny, K. P., & Sund, R. (2014). Productivity & Competitiveness of Indian Toy Industry: Prospects & Challenges. Productivity). Apr-Jun2014, Vol. 55 Issue 1, p120-130. 11p

Vollrath, T. L. (1991). A theoretical evaluation of alternative trade intensity measures of revealed comparative advantage. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv,127 (2), 265-280.

Wizarat, S., & Ahmed, A. (2016). Exports of Pakistan in European markets (EU27): A Constant Market Share Analysis. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(3).

Zheng, Z., & Zheng, F. (2012). Study of Guangdong toy export trade in post-crisis era. Contemporary Logistics, (8), 38.




How to Cite

Maqbool, M. S. ., Bashir, F. ., Rehman, H. ur ., & Ahmad, R. . (2021). Pakistan’s Exports and Global Economy: Export Competitiveness and Efficiency of Toys and Games. Review of Education, Administration & Law, 4(4), 813-821.