An Investigation of Pakistani University Students’ Socioeconomic Classes, Gender and Dimensions in Epistemological Beliefs: Dependencies and Interlinks probed by Structural Equation Modeling Approach


  • Rafaquat Ali Assistant Professor, Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar Campus, Pakistan
  • Furrukh Bashir Assistant Professor, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Hafeez Ur Rehman Professor/ Chairman, Department of Economics, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rashid Ahmad Assistant Professor, School of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan



Naive Epistemological Beliefs, Sophisticated Epistemological Beliefs, Certain Knowledge, Omniscient Authority, Quick Learning, Innate learn-ability, Structure Knowledge, Equality in Education, Socioeconomic Status


Epistemological beliefs impact all aspects of students’ academic and learning behaviours. The different dimensions of epistemological beliefs comprise structure, source, certainty, ability to learns and speed to learn. The students’ naive and inadequate epistemological beliefs can have negative impacts on their regulation of learning, self-efficacy, interest in study, academic performance and persistence in studies. Likewise, the socioeconomic background can explain various differences in students’ beliefs. Epistemological beliefs have social and cultural underpinnings as well. For these reasons, the researchers examined the impact of university students’ socioeconomic classes on their epistemological beliefs. In survey research design, the data were collected from university students in an online survey. The structural equation modeling approach was chosen to detect significant regression paths in the model. The lower and upper lower socioeconomic classes were found to have significant impact on students’ epistemological beliefs. The variable gender did not appear to make significant contribution to students’ epistemological beliefs. The naive beliefs can severely impact university students’ academic behaviour, therefore epistemological beliefs of students from lower and upper lower socioeconomic backgrounds should be challenged and improved.


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How to Cite

Ali, R. ., Bashir, F. ., Rehman, H. U. . ., & Ahmad, R. . (2021). An Investigation of Pakistani University Students’ Socioeconomic Classes, Gender and Dimensions in Epistemological Beliefs: Dependencies and Interlinks probed by Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Review of Education, Administration & LAW, 4(3), 629-643.