Extremism & Terrorism: A Political Issue or An Economic One?
Keywords:Terrorism, Economic Stability, Political Instability, Poverty, Foreign Involvement, Regional Disparities
Extremism and terrorism have become a serious threat to Pakistan’s security and well-being. Pakistan is situated in an uncomfortable and unfriendly neighborhood and faces an existential challenge from domestic forces of sectional and ethnic militancy and terrorism. These problems started after the 9/11 attacks. The extremists have not only affected the life in tribal areas but have also invaded the well-developed urban cities of Pakistan as well. The lusts for power, religious differences, regional disparities, political instability, illiteracy, foreign involvements, Afghan Jihad of 1975, low socioeconomic indicators, and non-democratic values are a few of the many reasons that have added fuel to the fire of militancy, terrorism, and extremism. More than 75 thousand people in Pakistan have either been killed by terrorist groups or have become a victim of religious militants and extremists. To address these problems Pakistan took a few measures such as the launching of Zarb-e-Azab, amendments to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967, the establishment of NATGRID, creating awareness about religion, revising Madrassa reforms, etc. All these efforts have solved the problem but only to some extent. There is a dire need for more strict measures not only by the Government but also by the civilians. Together, they need to keep working against these evils because they have eaten up the credibility, economic stability, reputation, well-being and peace of the country.
Aftab, S. (2008). Poverty and Militancy: Pakistan Institute for Peace Study, Knowledge for peace, p.01.
Alan, B. K. (2004). Does Poverty Cause Terrorism. The New Republic.
Alberto, A. (2003). Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. (NBER Working Paper No. 10859)
Azam, M. (2009). Radicalization in Pakistan: Socio-cultural Realities. PIPS Research Journal Conflict and Peace Studies. Islamabad.
Berrebi, C. (2007). Evidence about the link between education, poverty & terrorism among Palestinians. Peace economics, peace science, and public policy: Vol. 13: Issue no. 1.
Burki, S. J. (2002). Terrorism and Development. The Dawn, May 21, 2002.
Campana, A. & Lapointe, L. (2012). The Structural “Root” Causes of Non-Terrorism and Political Violence Vol. 24, 79-104.
Haqqani, H. (2005). The Ideologies of South Asian Jihadi Groups, Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, pp.12-26.
Krueger, A.B., Malenkov, J. (2003) Education, poverty & terrorism: Is there a causal connection? Journal of Economic Perspectives.
Testas, A. (2004). Determinants of Terrorism in The Muslim World. Terrorism and Political Violence Vol.16, No.2, 253-273.